Moving the display tank

I need to move the 490 litre display tank that is in my lounge so that we can have new flooring put in. I only have some limited tank space right now (6 tanks spare, two of which contain fry), so have decided to temporarily lend some of my Hemigrammus bleheri to the 60 litre project tank.

I moved 2 females and 4 males on the 4th of January and am planning to move another 6 fish on the 9th of January. So far, the seeded filter has coped with the additional stocking without any problems (ammonia and nitrite are at a clear 0 ppm).


The bulk of the maintenance that has been happening on this tank since October has involved topping up the evaporated water, filter cleaning, manually removing algae and water changes.


One of the issues that the family which has the tank had was that topping up the tank with a bucket disturbed the substrate. I generally avoid the problem by balancing the bucket of new water on top of the tank and syphoning it in. This helps avoid spilling water all over the place and the water from the water butts tends to be freezing this time of year so I’m sure the fish appreciate not having a shock of cold water. Their solution is to place a mug in the tank and pour the water over that (similar to the plate suggestion that seems to be popular in books).

In the mean time, the die back from the plants kept clogging the filter, which they started cleaning in old tank water, but then replaced the filter media altogether. Luckily this was before the fish were added, but I have reiterated the importance of not replacing the filter media in one go.

Fish - 3

The algae that was removed in the previous maintenance session has not come back after the lighting was reduced and the Spirodela spp. was introduced. They haven’t used the EasyCarbo, but I have now advised a dose of 0.25 ml per day to encourage plant growth as nitrates were high in the test results:

  • ammonia: 0 ppm
  • nitrite: 0 ppm
  • nitrate 50-80 ppm

The predominance of tap water top ups (we live in a hard water area) has caused the water in the tank to be quite hard, but this is likely to be beneficial to the plants in the long terms. At last water change yesterday, we removed 5 litres of water and added 20 litres.

I have trimmed the Limnophila sessiliflora a few times and removed over twice as much Spirodela spp. as I had originally added to the tank. The Cryptocoryne wendtii ‘Tropica’ has shown good growth as well, although Crypt. sp. ‘Green Crisped Leaf’ has remained the same size but now has submersed leaf growth. I added four sera Floronette A root tabs, one under each of the Crypt. spp. and two spaced equally under the other plants.

We also got a dark-blue on the bottom to blue on the top background for the tank and replaced the perspex lid with a glass one which is available for a shocking £20 from Arcadia. It works very well, but really should have come with the aquarium from the start. The glass lid is satisfyingly solid and easier to clean with vinegar than the perspex one.

Seeding the filter

Previously, I did a fishless cycle on this tank which took a grand total of one month. This time, I switched from the Powerbio 700 by Classica to a Elite Mini (a tiny internal filter which is quite efficient and was a favourite of mine for my fish room) which I “seeded” with cycled filter media from my display tank. I had also switched the heater from the 50 W heater that came with the tank to a Visitherm 50 W heater which was also salvaged from when I broke down by fish room five years ago. This puts the heater and the filter both at around 7-9 years old and still in perfect working order.

To seed a new filter, some of the new filter media needs to be replaced with old, cycled filter media which already has all the necessary bacteria living on it. It is possible for a filter to be partially seeded, to kick start the cycle with household ammonia or for low stocking, or to be fully seeding so that it will be able to take closer to full stock immediately. If you are seeing your filter and aiming for higher stocking, I recommend that the seeding is followed by a fishless cycle, which should take no more than a week or so.

I drip acclimatised the fish as normal and set up the filter at the same time on the 13th of December. Ammonia and nitrite have been at a constant 0 ppm since then, which means that seeding followed by immediate low stocking works well.

Apistogramma commbrae

Fish - 5Apistogramma commbrae are one of the rarer South American dwarf cichlids that are available in the hobby. You are unlikely to see these sold in a shop and only a handful of breeders keep these in UK.

So unsurprisingly, there’s very little information available about the species.

This beautiful cichlid comes from the Paraguay river system and it can also probably be found in southern Brazil and northern Argentina.

Fish - 7For the “species spec”, I have had the best of luck reading the original description from 1906[1] and the revision from 1982[2]. The types used for the species had a standard length of approximately 16-38 mm. Based on this and the size of the fish that I received, I would estimate standard adult sizes to be around 30 mm for a female and 40-45 mm for a male. The fish should be kept at 17-27°C (63-81°F), and ideally at 20-22°C[3].

As with most other Apistogramma, these are omnivores that benefit from small, live foods. My pair are currently on small bloodworm, daphnia, Aquadip cichlid flakes and Aquadip cichlid granules.

Both photos are of the same older juvenile/young adult female fish in stressed colours as they are not used to people yet.

[1] Regan, C.T. 1906, “Revision of the South-American cichlid genera Retroculus, Geophagus, Heterogramma, and Biotoecus.”. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 17 (no. 97)::49-66
[2] Kullander, S.O. 1982, “Cichlid fishes from the La Plata basin. Part II. Apistogramma commbrae (Regan 1906)”. Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 89 (no. 1): 33-48
[3] based on collection data, what Robert Wiltshire[4] of says and my own experience

Picking the species

By December, our schedules coincided enough to get some fish for the tank. I had wanted to find some Micropoecilia branneri as we live in a hard water area, but my search failed again. Instead, I decided to try our a very popular group of fish that I had not kept before. Being a complete beginner with killifish, I did my research, double and triple checking all the facts, but I failed to find guides to stocking in a “community” tank as most of the resources are aimed at breeders. On advice from some veteran killi-keepers from Seriously Fish, I found our that a 60 litre tank takes 8-12 Fundulopanchax gardeni ‘Innidere’.

The interesting thing about Fundolopanchax gardeni is that it is a very diverse species with many, many natural and cultivated colour morphs. I picked ‘Innidere’ based on mikev’s recommendation and as I had never seen a F. gardeni in person, that was good enough for me.

‘Innidere’ is usually attributed as a color morph of Fundulopanchax nigerianus. In reality, Fundulopanchax nigerianus has never existed. It is true that gardeni and nigerianum used to be considered two species, but this was a long time ago, when they were both considered to be in a different genus altogether, and were merged into one species in 1992, finally being named F. gardeni and F. gardeni nigerianus in 1996.

Nowadays, the correct naming is Fundulopanchax gardeni gardeni for what is traditionally considered F. gardeni and Fundulopanchax gardeni nigerianus for what is usually called F. nigerianus.

When I first started looking for this species, the breeder had some juveniles available. Unfortunately, by the time that I came around to buying the fish, they only had eggs. Fortunately, I didn’t read the description properly and bought eggs thinking it was the last pair of juveniles. Hatching these fish has proven to be quite interesting and easy.

Killifish eggSo unfortunately, I did not have the promised fish for the family on the day, but (again) luckily, I had also bought a pair of Apistogramma commbrae at the same time, which I have now let them borrow.

Hitting the first problems and finiding solutions

By mid-November, the newly set up, fish-free tank already showed some problems, the biggest being the appearance of fluffy clouds of dark green algae along the surface of the substrate. To counteract this, I suggested reducing the lighting period (which had been set to around 12 hours by the family) to 10 hours. I also gave them some Spirodela spp. which is a type of giant duckweed that can have a nice red tinge and a bottle of EasyCarbo, a liquid carbon fertiliser which also acts as an algaecide. We then manually removed as much algae as possible while doing a water change and left it at that. I also gave them some sera Florenette A root tabs (which are best value for money), two of which were inserted into the substrate at the time.

In that 6 or so weeks, some of the plants settled in nicely and some died off. Mainly, the Limnophila sessiliflora tried to take over the tank, while the Bacopa lanigera, Lindernia rotundifolia and Lysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea’ died back heavily. This corresponds with my experience that without investigation and special attention, some plants just take to some tanks while some just don’t.


The other problem that the family encountered is high levels of evaporation as can be seen in the photo below. With the tank temperature set to 24°C, this was unexpectedly high as I get considerably less evaporation in my “hot” tanks. The problem with topping up is that it increases the water hardness in the tank, and disturbs the substrate, but this was resolved later.

In the mean time, I had failed to find my background for this tank, so it was looking a bit bare without one. The sagging lid was also irritating everyone.


Restarting the 60 litre project

Following a rather unfortunate end to the 60 litre project, I have now re-set it up at a friend’s house for their 5 and 6 year old children. The parents have the previous white-ups from this project for reference, and my advice, in person, on demand. Their life style is relatively busy, with little free time, so we’ll see how a fish tank fits into their schedule.

We set up the tank with the 5th of October. I wanted to use Moler clay for the substrate because it resembles the popular gravel more closely than sand would. It should also keep a higher bank at the back more easily. Moler clay is a ridiculously dusty substrate which is sold by some aquatics suppliers, but is also available for the bonsai tree hobby as a substrate for the plants, as cat litter (which may be fragrant) and in some other industries as well. Moler clay, which is calcinated clay consisting mostly of diatomaceous earth from Denmark, supposedly has a high cation exchange capacity. In simple terms, this means that it will extract some nutrients from the water column and make them available to the plants through their roots instead.

I was reminiscing about one of my first tropical aquaria around this time, which was set up in the early 2000s. I was using Dorset pea gravel at the time and as it sat in the corner of the room, I created two tiers: a 1 cm layer of gravel at the front and a 10 cm tier across the corner which was propped up by oak branches and had a “cave” from a plastic pot that was cut in half. As this tank will be viewed mainly from the front (from the dining room, across the lounge) and the right side (from the sofa in the lounge), I decided to try for a taller tier at the back-left of the tank sloping downwards to the front-right and only a little substrate at the front. I’m hoping this will allow the higher tier to be planted heavily, while keeping the front clear for viewing and feeding. I was recently lucky enough to acquire some dragon stone at a good price from another hobbyist, and wanting to involve the children, I let them pick out a few pieces for the new tank. These now line the tank about a third of the way to the back, and from the left side to three quarters across the tank.

Next came the plants. The children, stayed relatively engaged while washing the substrate as they enjoyed plating with the hose and getting soaked (in October?!?). Guiding their dragon stone placement strategically was a bit more challenging. Filling the tank with water was slow torture. They did redeem themselves on unpacking and sorting the plants by species.

2 pots of Bacopa lanigera went into the back-left corner, next to the filter, thermometer and heater. Two pots of Lysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea’ went in front of the Bacopa. To the right of the Bacopa, one pot of Limnophila sessiliflora and next to that the Cryptocoryne wendtii ‘Tropica’. Two pots of Lindernia rotundifolia went in between the Crypt and the right side of the tank. The Cryptocoryne sp. ‘Green Crisped Leaf’ took the spot on the right side of the tank, on the substrate slope between the front and the back.

60-litre-1I left them with a bucket, piece of hose, net, dechlorinator and a full test kit (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, GH, KH and pH).

Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859

I was tracking down the original description of P. reticulata for reference, which proved to be a little difficult.

HB sunset guppy

It was published in 1859 on page 412 of Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin (abbreviated title Ber.Akad.Wiss.Berlin). The article, while it doesn’t have a title in the publication, is referred to as Eine neue vom Herrn Jagor im atlantischen Meere gefangene Art der Gattung Leptocephalus, und über einige andere neue Fische des Zoologischen Museums. Here is the original text, including the introduction:

6. Poecilia reticulata n. sp.

Grünlichgelb mit einem schwarzen Netzwerk, dessen Maschen den Rändern der Schuppen parallel liegen, am Bauche silbrig. Schuppen in 7 Längs- und in 27 Querreihen; obwohl einige derselben durchbohrt erscheinen, ist doch keine deutliche Seitenlinie zu sehen. Ganze Länge 39, Höhe 9, Länge des Kopfes 7 Millimeter.

D. 8. A. 10.

Caracas; in dem Guayre-Flusse von Gollmer gesammelt.

This roughly translates as:

6. Poecilia reticulata n. sp.

Greenish-yellow with a black mesh, with the pattern parallel to the edges of the scales, the belly silver. Scales are present in 7 horizontal and 27 vertical rows; although some of the scales appear pierced, no significant lateral line can be seen. Overall length 39 [mm], height 9 [mm], length of head 7 mm.

D. 8. A. 10.

[Collected from] Caracas [Venezuela]; in the Guayre River, from Gollmer.

D would be referring to the number of rays in the dorsal fin and A to the number of rays in the anal fin.

For those of you who are interested, the full publication is available from the Biodiversity Heritage Library.

Interpet PF Mini

I have just bought a couple of Interpet PF Mini filters for some small tanks to grow our fry. I have previously used Hagen Elite Mini internal filters for this as they retailed for under £10 each and were very low powered, but they appear to no longer be produced. The PF Mini has a recommended selling price of £15.99.



This is the bit that always gets me: most manufacturers do not list the dimensions of the filter, so I’m going to go ahead and fix this here. It’s 140 mm tall, 60 mm front to back and 43 mm wide. With the mounting bracket on, it is around 65 mm front to back and with the addition of the outlet nozzle, it comes to a hefty 100 mm front to back. The power cable is around 130 cm long.

Power and ratings

It’s a 5W heater, which costs £8.76 to run for a year, assuming that one pays 20p per kWh. Interpet claims that the flow rate is 200 lph, but do not specify if this is with or without filter media, and that it is suitable for tanks up to 35 cm long which are 5-40 litres in volume. It is rather good of them to market filters specifically for shrimp and growing on tanks, but it does make me wonder if this encourages some people to keep fish in tanks that are too small…

Filter media and capacity

The filter takes approximately 110 ml of media and comes with two rough “wool” sponges, a carbon sponge and a fine “wool” sponge. I plan to run this filter lined with fine filter wool and filled with porous ceramic media as I find those easier to clean and they are already cycled.


As with most filters, this one comes with an instructions booklet. This “most advanced and comprehensive filter available today” from “UK’s leading aquatic equipment specialist” comes without any references for those statements. To be honest, I don’t see how a basic internal filter can be considered “advanced” when we have self-cleaning, programmable filters available from Eheim.

Having said that, the explanation about the nitrogen cycle is pretty good and the advice about replacing filter pads is spot on at “never replace over 50% of the filter media at a time”. They even recommend liquid or tablet test kits to monitor water quality and specify that tap water will kill filter bacteria. The only improvement here could be to recommend 20-25% weekly water changes for the “average” (read, “overstocked and unplanted”) aquarium instead of 10% every 1-2 weeks.

Replacement parts

As the Interpet website does not currently have the booklets available online, here is a list of spare parts that are available for this filter:

  • Flow deflector: 2180
  • Impeller and housing: 2181
  • Mounting bracket: 2184
  • 3× suction cups (sucker set for bracket): 2183
  • Media housing (filter body): 2182
  • Rough wool foams: 2230
  • Carbon foams: 2231

Moving again

It has been eight months since I moved from Germany to UK and it is now time for another move. I have already drained the 60 litre tank, and have removed the substrate from that – all that is left now is to clean it, dry it and pack it into the box – and I am around one third of the way through removing the substrate from the discus tank.

The 60 litre tank was the easy one: I drained the water into buckets, using it to water the plants, then used a measuring jug to remove the sand into a sturdy box.

The discus tank is a little bit more complicated as I need to keep that running until I actually pack the fish for transportation. I have started removing the two layers of substrate separately by syphoning out the top layer of mixed sands, then fishing out the cat littler with a fish net. So far it took me about one hour to get around a quarter or the sand and litter out. Tomorrow I will try to finish it off.